Stemmatics or stemmatology is a rigorous approach to textual criticism. Karl Lachmann — greatly contributed to making this method famous, even though he did not invent it. This specific meaning shows the relationships of the surviving witnesses the first known example of such a stemma, albeit with the name, dates from Relations between the lost intermediates are determined by the same process, placing all extant manuscripts in a family tree or stemma codicum descended from a single archetype. The process of constructing the stemma is called recension , or the Latin recensio. Having completed the stemma, the critic proceeds to the next step, called selection or selectio , where the text of the archetype is determined by examining variants from the closest hyparchetypes to the archetype and selecting the best ones.
If one reading occurs more often than another at the same level of the tree, then the dominant reading is selected. If two competing readings occur equally often, then the editor uses judgment to select the correct reading. After selectio , the text may still contain errors, since there may be passages where no source preserves the correct reading.
The step of examination , or examinatio is applied to find corruptions. Where the editor concludes that the text is corrupt, it is corrected by a process called "emendation", or emendatio also sometimes called divinatio. Emendations not supported by any known source are sometimes called conjectural emendations. The process of selectio resembles eclectic textual criticism, but applied to a restricted set of hypothetical hyparchetypes.
The steps of examinatio and emendatio resemble copy-text editing. In fact, the other techniques can be seen as special cases of stemmatics in which a rigorous family history of the text cannot be determined but only approximated. If it seems that one manuscript is by far the best text, then copy text editing is appropriate, and if it seems that a group of manuscripts are good, then eclecticism on that group would be proper. Phylogenetics is a technique borrowed from biology , where it was originally named phylogenetic systematics by Willi Hennig.
In biology, the technique is used to determine the evolutionary relationships between different species. The manuscripts are then grouped according to their shared characteristics.
The difference between phylogenetics and more traditional forms of statistical analysis is that, rather than simply arranging the manuscripts into rough groupings according to their overall similarity, phylogenetics assumes that they are part of a branching family tree and uses that assumption to derive relationships between them.
This makes it more like an automated approach to stemmatics. However, where there is a difference, the computer does not attempt to decide which reading is closer to the original text, and so does not indicate which branch of the tree is the "root"—which manuscript tradition is closest to the original. Other types of evidence must be used for that purpose.
Phylogenetics faces the same difficulty as textual criticism: the appearance of characteristics in descendants of an ancestor other than by direct copying or miscopying of the ancestor, for example where a scribe combines readings from two or more different manuscripts "contamination". The same phenomenon is widely present among living organisms, as instances of horizontal gene transfer or lateral gene transfer and genetic recombination , particularly among bacteria.
Further exploration of the applicability of the different methods for coping with these problems across both living organisms and textual traditions is a promising area of study. Software developed for use in biology has been applied successfully to textual criticism; for example, it is being used by the Canterbury Tales Project  to determine the relationship between the 84 surviving manuscripts and four early printed editions of The Canterbury Tales. Shaw's edition of Dante's Commedia uses phylogenetic and traditional methods alongside each other in a comprehensive exploration of relations among seven early witnesses to Dante's text.
The stemmatic method assumes that each witness is derived from one, and only one, predecessor. If a scribe refers to more than one source when creating his copy, then the new copy will not clearly fall into a single branch of the family tree. In the stemmatic method, a manuscript that is derived from more than one source is said to be contaminated.
The method also assumes that scribes only make new errors—they do not attempt to correct the errors of their predecessors. When a text has been improved by the scribe, it is said to be sophisticated , but "sophistication" impairs the method by obscuring a document's relationship to other witnesses, and making it more difficult to place the manuscript correctly in the stemma. The stemmatic method requires the textual critic to group manuscripts by commonality of error.
It is required, therefore, that the critic can distinguish erroneous readings from correct ones. This assumption has often come under attack.
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Greg noted, "That if a scribe makes a mistake he will inevitably produce nonsense is the tacit and wholly unwarranted assumption. Franz Anton Knittel defended the traditional point of view in theology and was against the modern textual criticism. According to him Erasmus in his Novum Instrumentum omne did not incorporate the Comma from Codex Montfortianus , because of grammar differences, but used Complutensian Polyglotta. According to him the Comma was known for Tertullian. The stemmatic method's final step is emendatio , also sometimes referred to as "conjectural emendation".
But in fact, the critic employs conjecture at every step of the process. Some of the method's rules that are designed to reduce the exercise of editorial judgment do not necessarily produce the correct result. For example, where there are more than two witnesses at the same level of the tree, normally the critic will select the dominant reading. However, it may be no more than fortuitous that more witnesses have survived that present a particular reading.
A plausible reading that occurs less often may, nevertheless, be the correct one. Lastly, the stemmatic method assumes that every extant witness is derived, however remotely, from a single source. It does not account for the possibility that the original author may have revised his work, and that the text could have existed at different times in more than one authoritative version.
He surveyed editions of medieval French texts that were produced with the stemmatic method, and found that textual critics tended overwhelmingly to produce bifid trees, divided into just two branches. He concluded that this outcome was unlikely to have occurred by chance, and that therefore, the method was tending to produce bipartite stemmas regardless of the actual history of the witnesses.
He suspected that editors tended to favor trees with two branches, as this would maximize the opportunities for editorial judgment as there would be no third branch to "break the tie" whenever the witnesses disagreed. He also noted that, for many works, more than one reasonable stemma could be postulated, suggesting that the method was not as rigorous or as scientific as its proponents had claimed. This makes a Best-text edition essentially a documentary edition. When copy-text editing, the scholar fixes errors in a base text, often with the help of other witnesses. Often, the base text is selected from the oldest manuscript of the text, but in the early days of printing, the copy text was often a manuscript that was at hand.
Using the copy-text method, the critic examines the base text and makes corrections called emendations in places where the base text appears wrong to the critic. This can be done by looking for places in the base text that do not make sense or by looking at the text of other witnesses for a superior reading. Close-call decisions are usually resolved in favor of the copy-text.
The first published, printed edition of the Greek New Testament was produced by this method. Erasmus , the editor, selected a manuscript from the local Dominican monastery in Basle and corrected its obvious errors by consulting other local manuscripts. The Westcott and Hort text, which was the basis for the Revised Version of the English bible, also used the copy-text method, using the Codex Vaticanus as the base manuscript. The bibliographer Ronald B.
McKerrow introduced the term copy-text in his edition of the works of Thomas Nashe , defining it as "the text used in each particular case as the basis of mine. In McKerrow's method as originally introduced, the copy-text was not necessarily the earliest text. In some cases, McKerrow would choose a later witness, noting that "if an editor has reason to suppose that a certain text embodies later corrections than any other, and at the same time has no ground for disbelieving that these corrections, or some of them at least, are the work of the author, he has no choice but to make that text the basis of his reprint.
By , in his Prolegomena for the Oxford Shakespeare , McKerrow had changed his mind about this approach, as he feared that a later edition—even if it contained authorial corrections—would "deviate more widely than the earliest print from the author's original manuscript. Anglo-American textual criticism in the last half of the 20th century came to be dominated by a landmark essay by Sir Walter W.
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Greg , "The Rationale of Copy-Text". Greg proposed:.
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Greg observed that compositors at printing shops tended to follow the "substantive" readings of their copy faithfully, except when they deviated unintentionally; but that "as regards accidentals they will normally follow their own habits or inclination, though they may, for various reasons and to varying degrees, be influenced by their copy. The true theory is, I contend, that the copy-text should govern generally in the matter of accidentals, but that the choice between substantive readings belongs to the general theory of textual criticism and lies altogether beyond the narrow principle of the copy-text.
Thus it may happen that in a critical edition the text rightly chosen as copy may not by any means be the one that supplies most substantive readings in cases of variation. The failure to make this distinction and to apply this principle has naturally led to too close and too general a reliance upon the text chosen as basis for an edition, and there has arisen what may be called the tyranny of the copy-text, a tyranny that has, in my opinion, vitiated much of the best editorial work of the past generation. Greg's view, in short, was that the "copy-text can be allowed no over-riding or even preponderant authority so far as substantive readings are concerned.
Although Greg argued that an editor should be free to use his judgment to choose between competing substantive readings, he suggested that an editor should defer to the copy-text when "the claims of two readings In such a case, while there can be no logical reason for giving preference to the copy-text, in practice, if there is no reason for altering its reading, the obvious thing seems to be to let it stand. Editors who follow Greg's rationale produce eclectic editions, in that the authority for the "accidentals" is derived from one particular source usually the earliest one that the editor considers to be authoritative, but the authority for the "substantives" is determined in each individual case according to the editor's judgment.
The resulting text, except for the accidentals, is constructed without relying predominantly on any one witness. Greg did not live long enough to apply his rationale of copy-text to any actual editions of works. His rationale was adopted and significantly expanded by Fredson Bowers — Starting in the s, G. Thomas Tanselle vigorously took up the method's defense and added significant contributions of his own. Whereas Greg had limited his illustrative examples to English Renaissance drama, where his expertise lay, Bowers argued that the rationale was "the most workable editorial principle yet contrived to produce a critical text that is authoritative in the maximum of its details whether the author be Shakespeare , Dryden , Fielding , Nathaniel Hawthorne , or Stephen Crane.
The principle is sound without regard for the literary period. Citing the example of Nathaniel Hawthorne, he noted:. When an author's manuscript is preserved, this has paramount authority, of course. Yet the fallacy is still maintained that since the first edition was proofread by the author, it must represent his final intentions and hence should be chosen as copy-text. Practical experience shows the contrary.
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When one collates the manuscript of The House of the Seven Gables against the first printed edition, one finds an average of ten to fifteen differences per page between the manuscript and the print, many of them consistent alterations from the manuscript system of punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and word-division. It would be ridiculous to argue that Hawthorne made approximately three to four thousand small changes in proof, and then wrote the manuscript of The Blithedale Romance according to the same system as the manuscript of the Seven Gables , a system that he had rejected in proof.
Following Greg, the editor would then replace any of the manuscript readings with substantives from printed editions that could be reliably attributed to the author: "Obviously, an editor cannot simply reprint the manuscript, and he must substitute for its readings any words that he believes Hawthorne changed in proof. McKerrow had articulated textual criticism's goal in terms of "our ideal of an author's fair copy of his work in its final state". Bowers and Tanselle argue for rejecting textual variants that an author inserted at the suggestion of others.
Bowers said that his edition of Stephen Crane 's first novel, Maggie , presented "the author's final and uninfluenced artistic intentions. Tanselle discusses the example of Herman Melville 's Typee. After the novel's initial publication, Melville's publisher asked him to soften the novel's criticisms of missionaries in the South Seas. Although Melville pronounced the changes an improvement, Tanselle rejected them in his edition, concluding that "there is no evidence, internal or external, to suggest that they are the kinds of changes Melville would have made without pressure from someone else.
Bowers confronted a similar problem in his edition of Maggie. Crane originally printed the novel privately in To secure commercial publication in , Crane agreed to remove profanity, but he also made stylistic revisions. Bowers's approach was to preserve the stylistic and literary changes of , but to revert to the readings where he believed that Crane was fulfilling the publisher's intention rather than his own.
There were, however, intermediate cases that could reasonably have been attributed to either intention, and some of Bowers's choices came under fire—both as to his judgment, and as to the wisdom of conflating readings from the two different versions of Maggie. Hans Zeller argued that it is impossible to tease apart the changes Crane made for literary reasons and those made at the publisher's insistence:. Firstly, in anticipation of the character of the expected censorship, Crane could be led to undertake alterations which also had literary value in the context of the new version.
Secondly, because of the systematic character of the work, purely censorial alterations sparked off further alterations, determined at this stage by literary considerations. Again in consequence of the systemic character of the work, the contamination of the two historical versions in the edited text gives rise to a third version. Though the editor may indeed give a rational account of his decision at each point on the basis of the documents, nevertheless to aim to produce the ideal text which Crane would have produced in if the publisher had left him complete freedom is to my mind just as unhistorical as the question of how the first World War or the history of the United States would have developed if Germany had not caused the USA to enter the war in by unlimited submarine combat.
The nonspecific form of censorship described above is one of the historical conditions under which Crane wrote the second version of Maggie and made it function. From the text which arose in this way it is not possible to subtract these forces and influences, in order to obtain a text of the author's own. Indeed I regard the "uninfluenced artistic intentions" of the author as something which exists only in terms of aesthetic abstraction.
Between influences on the author and influences on the text are all manner of transitions. Bowers and Tanselle recognize that texts often exist in more than one authoritative version. Tanselle argues that:. If one may think of a work in terms of a spatial metaphor, the first might be labeled "vertical revision," because it moves the work to a different plane, and the second "horizontal revision," because it involves alterations within the same plane. Both produce local changes in active intention; but revisions of the first type appear to be in fulfillment of an altered programmatic intention or to reflect an altered active intention in the work as a whole, whereas those of the second do not.
He suggests that where a revision is "horizontal" i. But where a revision is "vertical" i. Bowers was also influential in defining the form of critical apparatus that should accompany a scholarly edition. In addition to the content of the apparatus, Bowers led a movement to relegate editorial matter to appendices, leaving the critically established text "in the clear", that is, free of any signs of editorial intervention.
Tanselle explained the rationale for this approach:. In the first place, an editor's primary responsibility is to establish a text; whether his goal is to reconstruct that form of the text which represents the author's final intention or some other form of the text, his essential task is to produce a reliable text according to some set of principles.
Relegating all editorial matter to an appendix and allowing the text to stand by itself serves to emphasize the primacy of the text and permits the reader to confront the literary work without the distraction of editorial comment and to read the work with ease. A second advantage of a clear text is that it is easier to quote from or to reprint. Although no device can insure accuracy of quotation, the insertion of symbols or even footnote numbers into a text places additional difficulties in the way of the quoter.
Furthermore, most quotations appear in contexts where symbols are inappropriate; thus when it is necessary to quote from a text which has not been kept clear of apparatus, the burden of producing a clear text of the passage is placed on the quoter. Even footnotes at the bottom of the text pages are open to the same objection, when the question of a photographic reprint arises. Some critics believe that a clear-text edition gives the edited text too great a prominence, relegating textual variants to appendices that are difficult to use, and suggesting a greater sense of certainty about the established text than it deserves.
As Shillingsburg notes, "English scholarly editions have tended to use notes at the foot of the text page, indicating, tacitly, a greater modesty about the "established" text and drawing attention more forcibly to at least some of the alternative forms of the text". The change of name indicated the shift to a broader agenda than just American authors. Meanwhile, applications written using the older toolkits would be supported using the "Classic" Mac OS 9 environment.
During this time, the lower layers of the operating system the Mach kernel and the BSD layers on top of it  were re-packaged and released under the Apple Public Source License. They became known as Darwin. The Darwin kernel provides a stable and flexible operating system, which takes advantage of the contributions of programmers and independent open-source projects outside Apple; however, it sees little use outside the Macintosh community [ citation needed ].
During this period, the Java programming language had increased in popularity, and an effort was started to improve Mac Java support. Aqua was a substantial departure from the Mac OS 9 interface, which had evolved with little change from that of the original Macintosh operating system: it incorporated full color scalable graphics, anti-aliasing of text and graphics, simulated shading and highlights, transparency and shadows, and animation.
A key new feature was the Dock, an application launcher which took advantage of these capabilities. Despite this, OS X maintained a substantial degree of consistency with the traditional Mac OS interface and Apple's own Apple Human Interface Guidelines , with its pull-down menu at the top of the screen, familiar keyboard shortcuts, and support for a single-button mouse.
The development of Aqua was delayed somewhat by the switch from OpenStep's Display PostScript engine to one developed in-house that was free of any license restrictions, known as Quartz. Prior to its release, version After the code name "Jaguar" for version While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve.
Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment, for attempts to completely overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since , and delayed by countless setbacks. Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent. Mac OS X Apple released On January 7, , Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month. In addition to providing much improved performance, it also incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface.
Apple stated that Tiger contained more than new features. The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services. On January 10, , Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release dropping support for the Classic environment.
The single DVD works for all supported Macs including bit machines. New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine , Spaces , Boot Camp pre-installed,  full support for bit applications including graphical applications , new features in Mail and iChat , and a number of new security features.
Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X , the development of Snow Leopard was deliberately focused on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the most noticeable changes are these: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean installation compared to Mac OS X It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications Launchpad and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac.
This release removed Rosetta , making it incapable of running PowerPC applications. It dropped support for bit Intel processors and requires 2GB of memory. Documents auto-save by default. It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center , support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app.
It also includes support for storing iWork documents in iCloud. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen. Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features, including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine.
Notes is added, as an application separate from Mail, synching with its iOS counterpart   through the iCloud service. Messages, an instant messaging software application ,  replaces iChat. Mavericks requires 2GB of memory to operate. It is the first version named under Apple's then-new theme of places in California , dubbed Mavericks after the surfing location. It featured a major overhaul of user interface, replaced skeuomorphism with flat graphic design and blurred translucency effects, following the aesthetic introduced with iOS 7.
It introduced features called Continuity and Handoff, which allow for tighter integration between paired OS X and iOS devices: the user can handle phone calls or text messages on either their Mac or their iPhone, and edit the same Pages document on either their Mac or their iPad. Apple described this release as containing "Refinements to the Mac Experience" and "Improvements to System Performance" rather than new features.
Refinements include public transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, as well as adopting San Francisco as the system font. Metal API , an application enhancing software, had debuted in this operating system, being available to "all Macs since ". The update brought Siri to macOS, featuring several Mac-specific features, like searching for files. It also allowed websites to support Apple Pay as a method of transferring payment, using either a nearby iOS device or Touch ID to authenticate. It was released publicly on September 20, It was released on September 25, In addition, numerous changes were made to standard applications including Photos, Safari, Notes, and Spotlight.
It was released on September 24, Some of the key new features were the Dark mode, Desktop stacks and Dynamic Desktop, which changes the desktop background image to correspond to the user's current time of day. It primarily focuses on updates to built-in apps, such as replacing iTunes with separate Music, Podcasts, and TV apps, redesigned Reminders and Books apps, and a new Find My app. It also features Sidecar, which allows the user to use an iPad as a second screen for their computer, or even simulate a graphics tablet with an Apple Pencil.
It is the first version of macOS not to support bit applications.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rhapsody Developer Release Hera Server 1. Archived from the original on Retrieved Steve Jobs. Archived from the original on December 20, Then, and until very recently, the original Hebrew text became partially known directly through six fragmentary manuscripts of the Cairo Genizah and several fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls Qumran and Masada. During the 20th century these manuscripts have been edited by several scholars, but none of these editions is today complete.
Moreover, they do not offer a translation of the Hebrew text as it is preserved, nor a philological, paleographical and codicological analysis. The present project aims to fill this gap. The edition does not intend to reconstruct a hypothetical archetype, but rather to present with equal consideration all the transmitted witnesses, underlining their multiformity and individual identities.
The perspective is therefore dynamic and aims at showing the vitality of the text during its transmission, expansion, successive transformations and re-readings. The object is to edit each textual witness independently, to translate and to clarify each linguistic, literary, philosophical and religious specificity. By editing them together yet independently, we emphasize their dynamic dimension. It allows us to photograph a text at different stages of its transmission: at the Hellenistic period with the Masada and Qumran manuscripts, and at the medieval period with the Genizah witnesses.
The edition will provide a triple apparatus: 1 paleographical notes, missing in preceding editions, not only to provide more accurate dating of the witnesses, but also to give more precise readings, as former editions are often divergent; 2 the variant readings of the other Hebrew witnesses; 3 a philological commentary. The edition will distinguish between certain, probable and possible readings and will discuss cases where preceding editions diverge; it will give the manuscript reference, the shelf-mark, as well as the numbers of verses, and of lines of the edited manuscript.
The philological commentary is crucial and unparalleled.