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There is a lof of research on the approaches, techniques and technologies for the design and development of MIS. However, there are a few articles that cover the impact of Management Information Systems on planning strategies and decision making. While there are no universally accepted definitions of MIS and those that exist in literatures are just prejudices of the researchers Adeoti-Adekeye, Lee, defined MIS as " a system or process that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively".

Additionally, Baskerville and Myers broadly define MIS as " the development, use and application of information systems by individuals, organizations and society". In his study, Becta describes an information system as " a system consisting of the network of all communication channels used within an organization ".

In their study, Laudon and Laudon have defined MIS as "the study of information systems focusing on their use in business and management". The abovementioned definitions showed that MIS has underlined the development, application and validation of relevant theories and models in attempts to encourage quality work in the area. Referring to the literatures, the field of Management Information Systems MIS has had a variegated development in its relatively short life span. MIS has developed its own theme of research and studies Baskerville and Myers, Tracing previous literatures, we can report that during its first few decades, MIS concentrated on the information in the context of:.

Only during the last two decades, the MIS field has shifted to the primary, considered the second type of communication, namely, instruction-based. This has become known as the domain of expert systems Sasan Rahmatian, In attempts to review published studies on MIS and articles, Alavi and Carlson have identified popular research topics, the dominant research perspective, and the relationship between MIS research and practice. In contrast, Baskerville and Myers have examined the MIS field and found a constant shift of MIS research from a technical focus to a technology-organizational and management-social focus.

Skyrius underlines the decision maker's attitudes towards different factors influencing the quality of business decisions; these factors include information sources, analytical tools, and the role of information technologies. Handzic also pays attention to the impact of information availability on people's ability to process and use information in short and long term planning and in decision making tasks.

He revealed that the better the availability of information, the better the impact on both efficiency and accuracy of business decisions. Liu and Young talk about key information models and their relationships in business decision support in three different scenarios. In order to improve the financial organizational capability and enhance its level of competition in the market, financial organizations should understand the dimensions of the Information Management, and clearly define and develop the resources in case of human, technological, and internal operations, among others,, and manage them well across the organizational boundaries.

However, establishing the link between Information System Management, planning and decision making is, at best, tricky. In an article by Shu and Strassmann , a survey was conducted at 12 banks in the US between and They noticed that even though Information Technology had been one of the most essentially dynamic factors relating all efforts, it could not improve banks' earnings. However, conversely, there are many literatures approving the positive impacts of Information Technology expenses on business value.

Kozak investigates the influence of the evolution in Information Technology on the profit and cost effectiveness of the banking zone during the period between and The study indicates an optimistic relationship among the executed Information Technology, productivity and cost savings.

The significance of management information systems for enhancing strategic and tactical planning

MIS enables the exchange of experiences, which transfers the required information to the management levels to sustain competitive advantage since it affects the decision making to improve the quality of services provided. Therefore, Barachini et al. Management Information System will give the banking management a new dimension in managing its knowledge and help in carrying out and maximizing the management's initiatives in harmonizing the appropriate strategies in the short and long planning Edmondson, In his study, Obi suggested that MIS is indispensible in the area of decision-making as it can monitor by itself the instability in a system, verify a course of action and take action to keep the system in control.

Literatures also suggested that non-programmed decisions are relevant as they provide support by supplying information to the search, the analysis, the evaluation and the choice and implementation process of decision making. More recently, Adebayo explained that the existence of MIS is needed to improve and enhance decision making on the issues affecting human and material resources. From the literatures presented, we can easily perceive that the importance of the role of both middle and top management to maintain a consistent approach to develop, use, and evaluate MIS systems within the institution.

To financial institutions, MIS is used at various levels by top-management, middle and even by the operational staff as a support for decision making that aims to meet strategic goals and strategic objectives. The above literatures also explore the importance of MIS in providing decision makers with facts, which consequently support and enhance the entire decision-making process. Furthermore, at the most senior level, MIS and DSS supply the data and required information to assist the board of directors and management levels to make an accurate and on time strategic decisions.

The current study attempts to explain the relationship between various factors. Due to the nature of the current study and its hypothesis, the primary research purpose of the current study is, thus, explanatory. Explanatory or causal explains the complexity of the interrelated variables identified that were posited in the hypothesis and research.

By developing several hypotheses, the study thus adapt the quantitative research design to better test those hypotheses. Quantitative research uses survey as the main instrument to collect data. To achieve the purpose of the current study, the following research questions have been formulated:. To what extent is MIS being utilized to support Strategic planning for decisions in Bahrain's financial organizations?

To what extent is MIS being utilized to support Tactical planning for decisions in Bahrain's financial organizations? To answer these questions, the current study carries out various hypotheses that developed from previous literatures and studies Ajayi et. Figure 1 presents the proposed model and factors affecting the process of decision making. Thus, we consider the hypothesis below:. The participants were asked to indicate their perception on a likert scales with response ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree". The collected data were analyzed based on correlation and regression analyses using the statistical package for social sciences SPSS.

The questionnaire of this study is adapted from previous literature and studies e. Ajayi et. The main reason why we need to refer to literatures when developing a questionnaire is to ensure the high reliability and validity of the survey. The questionnaire we prepared for this paper was divided into 2 sections. In the second section we were interested in gathering information about the importance of MIS and its use in Case one and Case two of financial institutions in Bahrain.

Decision-Making in Complex Dynamic and Evolutive Systems: The Need for a New Paradigm

The respondents were provided with a list of questions related to the following factors;. Using a personal relationship, the questionnaire has been discussed with various levels of bank management and a pilot study has been conducted amongst low-level members of the bank's staff. This improved the questionnaire, which has been used for the research presented in this study. The population for the study is the top management strategic , mid level management tactical and normal staff in Case one government financial institution and Case two private financial institution.

This population is deemed to be fully aware of the MIS use at the bank level. A total of forms were distributed equally each bank with 95 survey forms. In a convenience sample, the managers and bank staff were randomly approached. The distribution took place for a three-week period in early March, The survey was designed in English language.

The research tested the time to fill the survey and it took approximately minutes to be completed. The questionnaire we prepared and used had been pre-tested initially with few people 5 users working in different sectors to ensure consistency, clarity and relevance to the Bahraini case. Minor changes related to the questions content, wording, and sequence were requested by those people, which we implemented before carrying out the final copy.

Moreover, the simple Regression was implemented to test the hypothesis and the linkages between dependent and independent variables. This section presents the factor analysis test. Then, the results of correlation analysis of the three variables Strategic planning, Tactical Planning, and The Effectiveness of Decision-making are discussed. Finally, the results of the paper are discussed in accordance with the research objectives and hypothesis of the study.

Correlation analysis was incorporated to describe the strength and direction of the linear relationship between the two independent variables and the dependent variable Pallant, Effectiveness of the bank's decision-making processes, which are the dependent variables considered to be the bank's succession in management building and facility, financial aspects and staff issues. The scientific method works as an objective, fact-based method for making new discoveries and learning new ways of doing things.

Management science attempts to apply this same approach in dealing with problems that arise within business operations. Its use as a problem-solving approach finds applications in areas such as decision-making, design processes and strategic planning. The management science approach originated during World War II as a means for making the best use of available resources within military operations, according to the Encyclopedia of Business.

By studying existing strategies and tactics, the military hoped to gain a better perspective on where resources could best be used. The success of this approach soon found its way into the business world after World War II.


Technological advances and economic growth saw business managers wanting to make the most of their available resources. The management science approach proved an effective means for maximizing resources and reframing large operational problems into manageable scenarios. Buy It Now.

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Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. Systems Thinking. Systems Concepts.

  • Random Variables and Probability Distributions.
  • Systems and Decision Making: A Management Science Approach.
  • The Management Science Approach Problem Definition..
  • Management Science – The Definitive Guide!
  • Systems Modeling. Mathematical Modeling. Model Testing and Sensitivity Analysis. Implementation of Solution. Relevant Costs and Benefits. Discounted Cash Flows. Marginal and Incremental Analysis. Constraints on Decision Making.