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Work together to plan an ILE that meets the specific needs of your whole community. Involve students in the design process from the outset. Utilise student inquiry and ensure students form part of your planning team. View transcript. Articulate how an ILE supports your school vision. Develop a planning and reflection cycle. Give everyone a voice. Create multiple opportunities for teachers to expand innovative practices in flexible learning spaces. Work with staff to identify potential barriers to learning and wellbeing and plan collaborative approaches, utilising UDL principles that support all students.

There needs to be constructive alignment between the methods of the teacher and the opportunities and potential offered by these new spaces. You start with the teaching, you train people how to teach differently, and then move into the new spaces. Identify barriers to learning and wellbeing. Build capability to personalise learning. A flexible learning space will work well for everyone only if it is designed to do so. Design a plan from the outset that includes all students, particularly those experiencing barriers to learning.

Design for flexible use of space. Support wellbeing and belonging.

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Visit and re-visit the new space and new routines to ensure a successful transition. Students from Te Waka Unua School visit Halswell School to see their new design and gather ideas for their own learning spaces. Involve students in designing routines. Plan approaches to learning, systems, and routines with the needs of individual learners, particularly those who experience challenges, in mind.

Parents, Dayna and Phil share the benefits of ongoing conversations supporting a successful transition for their daughter into an ILE. Provide ongoing discussion opportunities. Welcome parent and community input.

This research-based book, based on 40 in-depth case studies of innovative twenty-first-century learning environments, describes how to design a powerful learning environment where learners can thrive. Examples of all aspects of ILEs. Read time: 72 min. The lessons from research on the nature of learning and different educational applications are explained in this book. These are summarised through the seven key principles of learning. Read time: 14 min. Read time: 94 min. This report summarises research aimed at better understanding design features of learning spaces in the context of learning and achievement.

Topics covered in this report include: lighting, heating, acoustics, indoor and outdoor spaces, and furniture considerations. Read time: 59 min. Examine what it takes to lead an inclusive school where all students are supported and diversity is valued. Read three strategies. Read four strategies. Understand the UDL framework and design learning to meet the diverse and variable needs of all students. Read seven strategies.

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Browse all guides. We shape an education system that delivers equitable and excellent outcomes. Did you want to Search all of TKI? Except where otherwise noted it is Crown Copyright Information on the Inclusive Education website is regularly updated so we recommend you check the website version of this information to ensure it remains current. Skip to main content.

Inclusive Education. Guide: Planning innovative learning environments ILEs. Planning innovative learning environments ILEs - Popular. This research aimed to analyze the attitudes of Physical Education teachers towards the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular classes. A change of attitude on the part of the teachers is fundamental so that they can have more favorable behaviors towards the inclusion of students with disabilities. Thus, positive attitudes may strongly influence a positive approach to inclusion, making the process more beneficial and enriching.

Moreover, more positive attitudes on the part of the teacher can affect the whole school environment, reaching other students and the community involved. The general characteristics of the teachers who participated in the study are summarized in Table 1. It is possible to verify the predominance of male teachers, with more than 35 years of age and more than 10 years of teaching experience.

In addition, the prevalence of those who took extracurricular courses on Physical Education for people with disabilities was also verified among participants. In Table 2 , the general data regarding the categories of the questionnaire are detailed, considering all the teachers participating in the study. Regarding the disabilities present among the students, 17 indicated intellectual disability; 15 motor disability; 15 multiple disabilities; and three.

The results showed that teachers are generally optimistic about the inclusion of students with disabilities in their classrooms.

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The item reported with lower optimism was the perceived Support. In this item, which deals with how teachers perceive the support received from the school, the presence of a multidisciplinary support team and material resources, no participant indicated the maximum score 12 points and two indicated the minimum score three points , revealing dissatisfaction with this item. On the other items, no participating teacher scored a minimum score, and at least one on each item scored the maximum score, which indicates an optimistic general view of the study participants about their own professional skills, the benefits of inclusion and acceptance of the students included.

The Acceptance item was the one that proportionally received the highest score on the part of the teachers researched, emphasizing that they perceive the students with disability are well accepted by the other classmates. Doulkeridou et al. When dealing specifically with the Support received by the school, which involves the availability of human, material and financial resources to work with students with disabilities, Fiorini and Manzini highlight in their study with public school Physical Education teachers that the lack of pedagogical resources and the inappropriate spaces for the classes constituted in difficulties for the process of inclusion.

Other negative points presented by the authors refer to the difficulty of teachers in obtaining access to information about the disabilities of the students and the lack of a support professional to collaborate in the classes, especially in the case of more severe disabilities. In a literature review on inclusive education, Qi and Ha emphasize that when there is adequate support and infrastructure, both disabled and non-disabled students can benefit from the inclusion process.

The authors identified possible facilitating factors: the professional qualification, the competence perceived by the teachers, the professional experience and the support available in the school. Contrary to this, the negative aspects of the process would be the lack of adequate teacher education, insufficient support and the severity of the disability, with the more severe conditions generating greater difficulties. Perhaps these differences may be due to the fact that the male teachers who participated in the present study had more professional experience than the women, which may have influenced the observed result.

It was found that more experienced teachers were more optimistic about their readiness to deal with students with disabilities and more optimistic about benefits from inclusion. In contrast to this, teachers with less experience had a more pessimistic view about the support received by the school for the inclusion of students with disabilities in their classes. Hwang and Evans , when analyzing the attitudes of 29 South Korean teachers on the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education, found that most of them Another relevant fact in the research is that, in the same way as in our study, many teachers In addition, teachers with more experience were more pessimistic about inclusion, probably because of the lack of support received and the frustrating experiences they experienced during attempts to include pupils with disabilities in their classrooms.

In the present study, the amount of professional experience showed influence in the attitudes of the teachers, with greater optimism manifested among those with more experience. However, the literature points to controversial results in this regard. Goodwin and Rossow-Kimball point out that successful experiences of Physical Education teachers with students with disabilities can positively reinforce self-efficacy, that is, how teachers perceive their competence to adequately deal with the various situations during class.

Support must be provided for the experience to be positive and, consequently, to improve its self-efficacy. Negative and frustrating experiences with students with disabilities may lead to a reduction in self-efficacy, which may be a major hindrance to the inclusion process, since people tend to avoid situations in which they do not feel competent Bandura, No significant differences were found for the other disabilities.

This fact shows that these teachers perceived less competence to deal with situations involving the differentiated conditions of their students with intellectual disability. Some recent studies diverge from these findings. They show that motor disability, especially cerebral palsy with greater severity, is pointed out by Physical Education teachers as the most complex for inclusion in activities during classes Hodge et al.


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The reason for such differences may lie in the severity of the condition, since the teachers participating in our study had students with motor impairments with lower degrees of impairment, while in the other studies cited, students presented greater loss of mobility, using, in many cases, a wheelchair as a means of mobility. In addition, the lack of specific classroom materials as well as inadequate architectural accessibility may lead to a greater tendency towards pessimism in the inclusion of students with motor disabilities. For the participants of the present study, the greater severity of the intellectual disability presented by the students, which generated deep difficulties of understanding and participation in the activities, may have been responsible for the results observed.

Other studies have also pointed out that the type and severity of pupil disability may interfere with teachers' attitudes towards school inclusion. In the present study, since all teachers taught grades of very close proximity, such differences were not found. In both situations, teachers who took extracurricular courses demonstrate more optimistic perceptions about their ability to deal with students with disabilities as well as the support received by the school for inclusion.

Inclusion (education) - Wikipedia

Moreover, extracurricular courses in the form of extension or graduate courses that deal with topics related to Special Education or adapted Physical Education may favor the improvement of the competence perceived by teachers to deal with the situations arising in the process Taliaferro et al. Thus, education courses in the field of disability are seen as a fundamental part of continuing teacher education and can have a positive effect on how they perceive their competence to deal with students with disabilities in inclusive situations Florian, In summary, in the present study, the most positive attitudes were expressed by older male teachers, with more professional experience and who had done education courses for students with disabilities, both at the extension and lato sensu levels.

However, some limitations can be raised, such as the reduced number of participants and the use of a quantitative tool to analyze teachers' attitudes. Nevertheless, the data collected here reveal relevant information about how Physical Education teachers perceive the inclusion of students with disabilities in the regular classes of Physical Education at school.

From the data obtained, it can be observed that the attitudes of Physical Education teachers towards the inclusion of students with disabilities are often contradictory, on the one hand demonstrating clarity about the benefits of the process for all students, but on the other hand fear that they do not have the necessary competence for proper performance. The teacher's amount of experience and gender, as well as the type of student's disability, were factors influencing attitudes, reinforcing that women with less amount of experience, especially with students who have intellectual disabilities in their classes, present more negative attitudes of inclusion.

The growing number of students with disabilities who are currently enrolled in the regular school system poses an imminent challenge to the entire school community. Although Physical Education teachers in many situations show that they are more predisposed to inclusion than their peers in other areas, only adequate professional education and the implementation of new curricular approaches can improve the sense of competence of these professionals, helping to change their attitudes. What is expected as a consequence is that the differences come to be perceived not as an obstacle in the educational process, but as an essential condition for human development in any teaching-learning context.

AN, J. Inclusion practices in elementary Physical Education: a social-cognitive perspective. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education , v. Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents.

Preparing Teachers to Educate for 21st Century Global Citizenship: Envisioning and Enacting

Creation and validation of the self-efficacy instrument for physical education teacher education majors toward inclusion. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly , v. DAS, A. Inclusive Education in India: are the teachers prepared? International Journal of Special Education , v. Attitudes of Greek Physical Education teachers towards inclusion of students with disabilities in Physical Education classes.

Preparing teachers to work in inclusive classrooms: key lessons for the professional development of teacher educators from Scotland's inclusive practice project. Journal of Teacher Education , v.

Thinking ethically about professional practice in adapted physical activity. Movimento , Porto Alegre, v. Brazilian physical education teachers' attitudes toward inclusion before and after participation in a professional development workshop. European Physical Education Review , v. Brazilian Physical Education teachers' beliefs about teaching students with disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education , p. Attitudes toward the participation of individuals with disabilities in physical activity: a review.

Quest , New York, v.