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Prosocial motivation: Is it ever truly altruistic? In: Berkowitz L. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. The necessity of others is the mother of invention: Intrinsic and prosocial motivations, perspective-taking, and creativity. Academy of Management Journal, , vol. Contemporary studies on the concept of creativity: The East and the West. As such, we propose that organizational identification is one cognitive mechanism through which perceived PO fit is linked to citizenship performance, and we present the following proposition. In adults, affective states are brought about by perceptions of environmental characteristics and events Lazarus, The workplace provides one set of environmental factors that has a powerful impact on employee affective states George, ; Spector and Fox, Moods and emotions are two forms of affective reactions.
Emotions are short-lived, intense, and stem from a specific incident e. Moods, on the other hand, are longer-lasting affective experiences that influence thought processes and behaviors, but are not associated with any particular event Brief and Weiss, ; Clark and Isen, ; George and Brief, In turn, moods and emotions induced by the workplace are key drivers of work-related beliefs, attitudes, discretionary behaviors, and performance e. Bajdo positive affective states contribute to the motivation to engage in certain patterns of behavior. According to person—environment PE fit theory, the optimal congruence between people and their environment leads to positive experiences Dawis, ; Dawis and Lofquist, Based on the consistent finding that PO fit is related to positive work-related attitudes such as satisfaction and commitment see Kristof- Brown et al.
As moods are more general affective reactions than emotions, we expect that the encoding process and determination of the degree of PO fit induce generally positive moods. For example, a person who has a performance orientation, who values the spirit of competition, and who works for an organization that rewards people for their performance is likely to perceive a sense of compatibility with the organization.
We expect that person to experience generally positive moods during the workday. Later, if that same person comes to learn that the organization is a true meritocracy that uses a detailed performance management system to link rewards with performance, he or she receives reinforcing information.
As a result, the employee should experience a happy or positive emotional reaction to the information. In contrast, if that same person comes to learn that the organization actually encourages little differentiation in performance ratings or pay, he or she receives incongruent information.
As a result, the employee is likely to react with emotional reactions such as disappointment or irritation. A substantial amount of literature indicates that positive affect is associated with prosocial behaviors such as cooperation, helping, and negotiation see Isen and Baron, In organizational settings, positive affective states may lead to favor- able opinions about the firm, co-workers, supervisors, or customers, which then results in increased levels of citizenship performance Dalal, ; George, ; Spector and Fox, Engaging in helping behavior is also self-reinforcing, such that it enables a person to maintain a positive affective condition Clark and Isen, ; Isen et al.
When people form a strong sense of fit with their orga- nization and subsequently experience positive feelings, they are likely to engage in behaviors that help to maintain the positive state and that serve to protect or ben- efit the organization George and Brief, We therefore propose that positive mood and emotions brought on by PO fit perceptions contribute to the moti- vation to engage in citizenship performance behaviors and present the following proposition. Proposition 5: The degree of perceived fit with an organization is positively related to the frequency and duration of positive affective states concerning the organization and employment with the company.
Goal strivings. Social-Cognitive Motivational Mechanisms Intentions are reflected in the things that people strive for, and these goal strivings represent the cognitive motivation to act Barrick et al. Barrick, Stewart, and Piotrowski built on this distinction and defined three types of motivational striving important in work settings: communion striving, status striving, and accomplishment striving. Each form of striving is believed to motivate behavior congruent with that striving. Both communion striving and status striving are broad intentions focusing on so- cial interactions Bakan, ; Hogan, ; Hogan and Shelton, ; Wiggins and Trapnell, Communion striving involves intentions to affiliate and get along well with others at work, such as striving to include co-workers in key decisions.
Accomplishment striving focuses on work-related goals, such as completing projects and devoting effort to assignments. When people experience a strong sense of fit with their employing organization, they are likely to place a high value on both their personal success within the firm and the overall success of the firm. For example, people who fit their organizations are likely to cooperate with others and volunteer to help co-workers, as these actions help to build cohesion and enhance the work environment.
Likewise, people who have a strong sense of organizational fit will want to maintain employment and strive to gain positions of higher status and visibility. Therefore, we propose the following proposition. Proposition 6: The degree of perceived fit with an organization is positively related to the formation of: a communion strivings, b status strivings, and c achievement strivings.
According to ex- pectancy theory, people are motivated to put forth effort if they believe that: a their efforts will lead to higher performance expectancies , b higher performance will be instrumental in gaining important outcomes instrumental , and c those outcomes are highly valued valence. Bajdo will lead to a performance outcome. Across studies, expectancy has been found to be related to motivational effort and intentions, along with supervisor ratings of performance see Van Eerde and Thierry, Mischel and Shoda argued that the recognition of situational features triggers expectations and beliefs about the situation and outcomes of behavior.
Ex- tending their theory to the organizational fit arena, for people who have a strong sense of organizational fit, the success of the organization is personally impor- tant as it enables the company to sustain a competitive market position, provides resources that enhance the work environment, and lessens the potential for down- sizing initiatives. As a result, people may form expectations that their efforts will contribute to being viewed as a valued mem- ber of the firm, and help to protect their employment.
As such, we expect that people who have a strong sense of fit with an organization engage in citizenship performance, in part because they expect their efforts to contribute to the overall success of the organization and their ability to maintain their employment with that firm. For example, people who have a strong sense of PO fit are more likely to stay late to meet a project deadline, assist a colleague in meeting a deadline, or volunteer to serve on an orientation committee than someone who perceives a weaker level of fit with the organization because they expect their efforts to help the organization to be successful.
Therefore, expectancies provide another cognitive mechanism linking PO fit perceptions to citizenship, and we offer the following proposition. Proposition 7: The degree of perceived fit with an organization is positively related to expectations that personal efforts will: a help the organization to be successful and b enhance the work environment.
Behavior generation process Mischel and Shoda also argued that each of the four cognitive and affective units are connected through a stable network of relationships. As such, the units work together and influence one another. For example, positive moods and emotions tend to influence the behaviors people choose to adopt George and Brief, , expectancy motivation Erez and Isen, , and how people make judgments and think about their settings Forgas and George, ; Isen and Baron, Likewise, because the success of the organization is self-enhancing to people who identify with the organization Turner and Haslam, , they are likely to form strivings and behaviors aimed at helping the organization succeed and expectations that personal efforts are an important contributor to organizational success.
This processing disposition generates patterns of be- havior in that situation. More specifically, the activation of one or more cognitive or affective units in response to features of a situation activates the remaining units through the network of interrelations that forms. This network of activated mech- anisms is a processing disposition that provides an arousal for behavior generation and direction for that behavior. Turning to the proposed model, we expect that the four cognitive and affective mechanisms combine through a network of interrelationships to form a processing disposition that channels effort toward citizenship performance.
More specifically, the conscious determination of PO fit triggers positive reactions in each of the cog- nitive and affective mechanisms, and each activated mechanism contributes to the desire to be a good organizational citizen. In addition, organizational identification, positive affective reactions, expecting efforts to enhance the firm, and developing organization-enhancing goal strivings also form a network of interrelationships that activate and intensify the reactions among the units.
This network of interrelation- ships, or processing disposition, creates an upward spiraling effect that provides a motivational basis for engaging in citizenship performance behaviors. Once ac- tivated, the processing disposition creates an arousal and directs efforts toward interpersonal-, organizational-, and job-focused citizenship, and increases the in- tensity and persistence of those efforts. Individuals who fit an organization well have little to lose and much to gain by helping the organization and co-workers to succeed because of the set of cognitive and affective reactions.
In contrast, people who form a weak sense of fit with an organization experience more neutral, or perhaps even negative, cognitions and affective states. These experiences likely deter people from engaging in work outside of their specific role or area of responsibility and may cause people to view acts of citizenship as detracting from personal success.
Proposition 8: People who perceive that they fit an organization well form a processing disposition that involves the activation of each of the four cognitive-affective units and a series of interrelationships among them, which in turn lead to the engagement in citizenship performance. We also expect that the degree of perceived organizational fit directly influences the magnitude of the relationships with each of the cognitive and affective mech- anisms.
People with a strong sense of organizational fit are likely to incorporate organizational membership as a salient aspect of their self-concept and consistently experience positive moods in the workplace. At the same time, they are also likely to form clear motivational strivings that focus on organizational achievement, and hold steadfast expectations that their efforts contribute to organizational success. The strength of fit perceptions and the strength of the relationships with each of the cognitive and affective units should then spill over and influence the magni- tude of the pattern of interrelationships among the cognitive and affective mediating units.
Bajdo reactions are likely to enhance the remaining reactions and thus intensify the pro- cessing disposition. That is, we propose that the degree of perceived fit is related to the magnitude of: a the relationships between fit perceptions and each cognitive or affective reaction, and b the interrelationships among the cognitive and affective reactions.
The magnitude of these relationships and interrelationships represents the strength of the processing disposition; stronger processing dispositions lead to higher levels of citizenship performance. Proposition 9: The degree of perceived fit with an organization is positively related to the magnitude of the interrelations: a between perceived PO fit and each of the cognitive-affective units, and b among the cognitive-affective units. The magnitude of the interrelations is positively related to citizenship performance.
Self-regulation processes People exercise control over their actions by making self-relevant evaluations and reg- ulating the allocation of effort and attention to various goals and intentions Kanfer and Ackerman, ; Lord and Hanges, Self-regulation operates through three psychological sub-functions, comprising self-observation, self-evaluation, and self- reaction Bandura, ; ; Kanfer, In the self-observation sub-function, individuals gather information about their own behaviors that are relevant for at- taining specific goals of interest Bandura, ; These observations provide the diagnostic information that is used in the self-evaluation sub-function to judge progress by comparing behaviors or results to various standards Bandura, ; Kanfer, Self-evaluation also involves an evaluation of the importance of these actions, as people are not likely to devote attention to activities they care little about Bandura, ; Kanfer, Then, during the self-reaction sub-function, peo- ple respond to their evaluations by adjusting: a their goal-directed behavior, b the goals they are striving for, and c their beliefs about goals and their ability to achieve them Bandura, ; Kanfer, These reactions typically lead to some level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with performance or with the self Kanfer and Ackerman, As such, self-regulation is a dynamic process through which people adjust their actions and beliefs in pursuit of desired goals Bandura, ; Kanfer, However, because of its dynamic nature, we use self-regulation to explain how these processes evolve over time.
Through self-regulation processes, people who perceive a strong sense of fit with an organization control the allocation of their attention and efforts toward the goal of building a successful organization and work environment. The process begins with people making self-observations of their citizenship, including how they support co-workers and the activities of the organization in general.
People also make observations of the overall importance of their employing organization and role within the organization, the goals they strive for, the moods and emotions they experience at work, and whether they expect their efforts to generate success. These observations may be the result of self-awareness and internal interpretations of behavior.
The observations may also stem from reflecting upon feedback from external sources such as supervisors and colleagues. Ultimately, self-observations provide important diagnostic information used to make self-evaluations of the extent to which behaviors, beliefs, and affective states exceed, match, or fall short of standards.
People then react to these judgments by adjusting: a the intensity of cognitive and affective reactions, b perceptions of fit with the organization, and c the content of fit-related schema. People are thought to experience some degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction in reaction to evaluations of their progress, and, in turn, they adjust the intensity of their efforts Bandura, ; Kanfer and Ackerman, Favorable evaluations of citizenship performance or progress toward important goals should lead to positive emotional reactions, such as happiness and a sense of satisfaction, while unfavorable judgments should produce less positive emotional reactions, such as disappointment or frustration.
When judgments indicate that standards have not been met, mild af- fective reactions lead to more intense efforts whereas stronger affective reactions lead to the adjustment of standards and beliefs Bandura, , in this case about citizen- ship and the organization.
Self-evaluations should also influence goal strivings and expectancies. Favorable judgments should result in maintaining current goal striving levels — or even intensifying strivings — and therefore reinforce expectations that per- sonal efforts are an important contributor to organizational success. Less favorable judgments may result in adjusting expectations or goal strivings downwards to be congruent with beliefs about the organization and its capabilities. Judgments should also impact the distinctiveness of the organization and the salience of membership in the working self-concept.
The next set of self-reactions focus on clarifying perceptions of organizational fit and refining personal fit-related schemas. People develop and refine their assessments of fit with an organization over multiple pre- and post-hire experiences Dickson et al. These experiences are an important guide to organizing self-relevant information, and the importance people attach to a particular situation is influenced by how they feel in that situation Greenwald and Pratkanis, Bajdo for their personal preferences or values.
In contrast, people who form a more negative or neutral judgment about the organization are less likely to determine that they are a good fit with the organization. Thus, self-regulation processes help people to refine their perceptions of compatibility with the organization. In addition, once feedback is internalized, it is interpreted in the context of current schemas DeNisi et al.
Through reflections upon cognitive and affective reactions, acts of citizenship, and the outcomes of citizenship performance, people refine schemas containing the general and specific characteristics of compatible organizations. Therefore, we propose that self-regulation processes provide insights into the dynamic nature of the motivational processes linking PO fit and citizenship performance.
Proposition Through self-regulatory processes, individuals engage in self- observations and self-evaluations of their citizenship performance and cognitive and affective reactions. These evaluations lead to self-reactions that include adjustments to: a fit-related schema content, b the strength of PO fit perceptions, c social identification assessments, d affective states, e goal strivings, and f expectancies.
In this chapter we have fo- cused on one behavior-related outcome with the goal of explaining how and why PO fit matters relative to organizational citizenship. Good theory in the organizational sciences needs to provide explanation Campbell, , as well as meaning and direction for future research Klein and Zedeck, To this aim, we formulated a theoretical model of the psychological mechanisms that link PO fit to citizenship, and we presented a series of propositions to guide future research.
Aside from the formal propositions, the model also raises a number of broad issues for consideration in the organizational fit literature. Theoretical issues for consideration In this chapter, we view the perception of fit and the activation of the cognitive and affective mediating mechanisms as operating at a conscious level. However, the extent to which the encoding, mediating, and self-regulation processes operate at a conscious level versus an unconscious level is an issue that warrants greater theoret- ical and empirical examination.
Goal-setting research provides some indication that motivational processes unfold on both a conscious and an unconscious level. However, they also found that subconscious goals interacted with conscious goals to enhance their effects on performance, suggesting that some mechanisms may unfold at an unconscious level. When people determine that the organization they work for is a good fit, they may consciously form communion, status, and accomplishment strivings that focus on helping the company and colleagues succeed.
In contrast, people may experience positive moods and emotions when they have a strong sense of PO fit without being consciously aware of the reasons. Future research should examine which processes are more or less likely to unfold consciously as opposed to unconsciously. Similarly, some individuals are attuned to their environments and are generally more self-aware than others. As a result, individual differences may impact the extent to which these processes unfold consciously versus unconsciously.
These are questions that present fruitful avenues for future research. PO fit is a positive psychological experience and this chapter examines the mo- tivational consequences of strong organizational fit. However, there have been few attempts to determine the extent to which organizational fit and organizational misfit are distinct psychological experiences. In relation to the proposed concep- tual model, this raises two important questions: a what work-related behaviors are people who experience misfit motivated to engage in?
Just because a person does not experience a sense of fit with an organization does not necessarily mean that the person experiences a sense of misfit. Billsberry, personal communication, June 28, Perhaps people react to misfit by disengaging from their job and organization and by focus- ing more intently on job-seeking behaviors. Alternatively, prior research has found that people who experience some forms of misfit are motivated to over-perform to protect their employment Shallenberger, People who experience misfit and also have few alternative employment options may be motivated to engage in exceptional levels of task performance to protect their employment J.
Others may experience extreme emo- tional reactions and become motivated to engage in deviant behaviors to ease the tensions they experience. Research is needed to determine if perceptions of organi- zational misfit activate a different series of cognitive-affective motivational mecha- nisms leading to a different set of behaviors, or if perceptions of PO misfit activate the same types of motivational mechanisms but with different reactions motivating different behaviors. In this chapter, we have focused on the role of PO fit and cognitive and affective reactions to fit as motivational drivers of citizenship performance.
Bajdo to be important internal indicators of both individual- and organizational-focused citizenship across a range of conditions and after controlling for relevant variables e. As personality traits have been linked with preferences for organiza- tional culture values Judge and Cable, , agreeableness and conscientiousness traits may also be important indicators of organizational preferences.
Agreeableness has been linked with communion striving Barrick et al. Perhaps agreeable individuals naturally seek out cooperative cultures where citizenship is outwardly encouraged. In these organizations, high agreeableness individuals are likely to expe- rience positive moods and reactions, form communion strivings, naturally identify with their employer, and be highly motivated to engage in citizenship performance. Likewise conscientious individuals are dependable and driven see Digman, ; Roberts et al.
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As a result, they may seek out organizations with similarly conscientious members who strive to work for a successful organization and expect their efforts to generate success. Highly con- scientious individuals tend to place greater emphasis on PO fit perceptions than less conscientious individuals in their employment intentions and decisions Resick et al. As a result, the cognitive and affective mediating units may play a stronger mediating role in high versus low conscientious individuals. Conclusion Employees who are good organizational citizens help organizations to operate suc- cessfully.
For example, unit-level citizenship has been linked with employee reten- tion, cost containment, and enhanced productivity, efficiency, and profitability see Podsakoff et al. The reasons why people engage in organizational citizenship are numerous see Ilies et al. In this chapter, our intent was not to provide a comprehensive discussion of the origins and antecedents of organizational citizenship.
Rather, our intent was to focus specifically on the organizational fit—organizational citizenship linkage and outline the motivation-related processes that explain this relationship. Because PO fit arises from the unique interactions between people and the organizations in which they work, fit perceptions provide important insights into the motivational mechanisms that explain why people behave as they do at work.
References Abrams, D.
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