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Those concerns were only repeatedly echoed ever since by more than 75 NGOs , the European Parliament and academics. We also compare the portfolios of the six national central banks that have been tasked with implementing CSPP. CSPP results in making the cost of capital too cheap for the most polluting sectors, without any guarantee that these financial conditions help or encourage those companies to engage in a transformation of their underlying economic models.

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Because of this confusion, people often end up comparing policies that are on entirely different levels. The Taylor rule describes the middle level of the process, whereas NGDP targeting is about the policy goal. You could compare NGDP targeting to inflation targeting, or you could compare the Taylor Rule to a futures price target, or an exchange rate target. I recently gave a talk at the Mont Pelerin Society meetings in Ft.

Worth, and there were a number of questions. One person asked why the Fed should control interest rates.

Targets of Monetary Policy: 7 Targets | Economics

We generally assume that the market does a better job setting prices than does the government. There are actually two issues here. My views on this are a bit hard to explain. So bear with me as I try.

My first claim is that monetary policy always involves the government setting a price or a quantity. They might control the quantity of base money, or M1 or M2. Or they might control the interest rate or the price of foreign exchange or the price of gold as in the s , or the price of NGDP futures contracts. But if you control monetary policy, you control some sort of price or quantity. Notice that this is even true of a laissez-faire gold standard where the government merely defines the dollar as a fixed quantity of gold, and lets free banks issue currency in an unregulated fashion.

And yet I do not oppose this policy for the reasons I oppose price controls, rent controls , minimum wages, agricultural price supports or any similar policy. Consider two policies:. The second policy causes prices to gradually increase.

Monetary authority decides inflation target will be % — Brazil

Because prices are sticky, or slow to change, interest rates also fall in the short run. It occurs because interest rates are the flexible price that adjusts due to the fact that other prices are sticky.

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Importantly, the two central banks do not tell the public whether they are targeting interest rates or exchange rates. They just do it. Each day, the two central banks instruct their open market desks to adjust the monetary base until the intermediate targets interest rates or exchange rates are at the desired level by market closing.

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In both cases, the public is completely unaware of whether they are targeting interest rates or exchange rates. But all central bank actions are fully transparent.

Inflation targets

The public knows the size of the open market operations, and they know where the exchange rate and interest rate end the day. In both cases, monetary policy decisions affect both interest rates and exchange rates. In both cases, the central bank need not intervene directly in either the foreign exchange or credit markets. They just need to somehow inject and remove money from the economy, which impacts both exchange rates and interest rates. In both cases, the macroeconomy labor market may or may not be in equilibrium, depending on whether monetary policy is conducted well.

In both cases, the foreign exchange and credit markets will be in equilibrium even if the macroeconomy is not in equilibrium.