He opened up China to the outside world and industrialized successfully. In the death of reformer Hu Yaobang led to student protests for individual freedoms. This led to the Tienanmen Square massacre, where military force was used against civilians. The PRC government was internationally condemned, and Deng officially resigned in He made a tour of China to keep emphasis on his policies and inspire the entrepreneurship that exists in China today. Modern Communism in China The current constitution was created in and been continually revised since. The constitution includes many civil rights: free speech, press, worship, the right to trial, and the right to own private property.
However, in practice this constitution has widely not been followed. There has been very little done to ensure that new laws instituted follow the constitution. The judicial system does not provide any particular method for review of new laws.
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Computer usage in China has exploded. Currently, there are over million internet users and over million mobile phone users. There is a huge increase of the computer users in China, and ethics of technology has become increasingly prominent over the years. In particular, privacy, censorship, public ownership, and work ethic have become series ethical issues.
During the Japanese invasion and occupation , the Communists built more secret bases in the Japanese occupied zones and relied on them as headquarters. The Nationalists had an advantage in both troops and weapons, controlled a much larger territory and population, and enjoyed broad international support. The Communists were well established in the north and northwest. The best-trained Nationalist troops had been killed in early battles against the better equipped Japanese Army and in Burma, while the Communists had suffered less severe losses.
The Soviet Union , though distrustful, provided aid to the Communists, and the United States assisted the Nationalists with hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of military supplies, as well as airlifting Nationalist troops from central China to Manchuria , an area Chiang Kai-shek saw as strategically vital to retake.
Chiang determined to confront the PLA in Manchuria and committed his troops in one decisive battle in the autumn of The strength of Nationalist troops in July was 4. Chiang Kai-shek , , Nationalist troops, and about two million Nationalist-sympathizer refugees retreated to the island of Taiwan. After that, resistance to the Communists on the mainland was substantial but scattered, such as in the far south.
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An attempt to take the Nationalist-controlled island of Kinmen was thwarted in the Battle of Kuningtou. In December Chiang proclaimed Taipei , Taiwan the temporary capital of the Republic, and continued to assert his government as the sole legitimate authority of all China, while the PRC government continued to call for the unification of all China. The last direct fighting between Nationalist and Communist forces ended with the Communist capture of Hainan Island in May , though shelling and guerrilla raids continued for a number of years. Below is the speech Chairman Mao Zedong had proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China on 1 October at pm on top of the Tiananmen:.
The people throughout China have been plunged into bitter suffering and tribulations since the Chiang Kai-shek Kuomintang reactionary government betrayed the fatherland, colluded with imperialists, and launched the counter-revolutionary war. Fortunately our People's Liberation Army , backed by the whole nation, has been fighting heroically and selflessly to defend the territorial sovereignty of our homeland, to protect the people's lives and property, to relieve the people of their sufferings, and to struggle for their rights, and it eventually wiped out the reactionary troops and overthrew the reactionary rule of the Nationalist government.
Now, the People's War of Liberation has been basically won, and the majority of the people in the country have been liberated. On this foundation, the first session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference , composed of delegates of all the democratic parties and people's organization of China, the People's Liberation Army, the various regions and nationalities of the country, and the overseas Chinese and other patriotic elements, has been convened.
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At the same time, the Central People's Government Council decided to declare to the governments of all other countries that this government is the sole legal government representing all the people of the People's Republic of China. This government is willing to establish diplomatic relations with any foreign government that is willing to observe the principles of equality, mutual benefit, and mutual respect of territorial integrity and sovereignty.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. President and Director-General Chiang Kai-shek. Main article: Chinese Civil War.
Mao Zedong and the Chinese revolution -ORCA
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University Press of Kentucky. The Origins of Chinese Communism.
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