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Scholarly publications, written by adults—as is this book—provide the theoretical foundations upon which to structure dialogue, debates, and research. Policies and programs ensue, again developed by adults, to address the newfound oppression. The pursuit of justice provides an excellent framework for bringing together groups that have not collaborated in the past. The term justice, not surprisingly, generally consists of a set of universal principles. Together these four ideal ethical qualities encourage members of a society to moderate selfinterests in favor of the greater good.

According to Weil , 8 , social justice essentially means fairness. In society, social justice should foster equal human rights, distributive justice, and a structure of opportunity and be grounded in representative and participatory democracy.


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As a consequence, social justice is a concept that serves a unifying function within a society and lends itself to being part of a foundation for youth-led community organization. Embracing a social justice agenda such as that articulated by Weil brings with it a responsibility to ensure that all sectors of society have rights and that corrections are available to rectify any injustice. In reality, however, these four concepts are intertwined, and discussion of one necessarily involves discussion of the others.

Furthermore, a commitment to these four concepts is essential if adults are to play meaningful roles in working respectfully and effectively with young people in youth-led community organizing. Rather, the reader must be prepared to identify the elements that he or she embraces and those with which he or she disagrees.

Social Justice Language and concepts play such a critical role in any form of social intervention, and nowhere is this more the case than in community organizing. As a result, youth must use language and concepts that help them better understand their social context and enable them to communicate successfully with those outside their own group.

Account Options

The saliency of the concept of social justice and its roots in political philosophy represent an excellent 26 SETTING THE CONTEXT starting point for engaging youth in a discourse about their lives and the conditions of their communities, even though such an examination initially may result in a tremendous amount of pain and anger. Social justice is a term that has almost universal meaning throughout the world. Social justice has a rich historical meaning in this country dating back to the Revolutionary War, when it provided a philosophical rationale for breaking away from England Kurland Its meaning since that time has broadened and evolved to include a multitude of social perspectives that stress the importance of inclusion rather than exclusion, going beyond a limited number of social factors such as race, class, and gender.

Age has become the latest factor to enter the dialogue about social and economic justice in democratic societies, including the United States.

The Forum For Youth Investment

Child Welfare Across Borders notes that viewing youth from an autonomy perspective implies that young people have the same rights to participation and decision making as adults, while using a social justice framework to assess the status of youth leads to the creation of social interventions to rectify injustices. David Miller advances the position that social justice has been the animating ideal of democratic governments in the twentieth century. Separating rhetoric from reality, however, is essential for any group wishing to further a social and economic justice agenda in this society.

Furthermore, the appeal of such an agenda can transcend groups and has equal applicability for examining the social conditions of both youth and adults, helping campaigns for social action cross this age divide. However, social justice usually consists of three essential principles Center for Economic and Social Justice : 1 the principle of participation; 2 the principle of distribution; and 3 the principle of harmony. Therefore, every effort must be made to bring these principles to life, rather than to hold them as abstract philosophical ideals. However, this difference of opinion must be recognized, since it will enrich debate and be relevant for those engaged in social action-oriented interventions.

However, around the world, children of different cultures appear to share an acute sense of justice. How just and fair a society is depends on who has the power and how it is exercised. Good governance will ensure equity and social justice for all. It is said that the litmus test of justice or injustice in any society is how it treats its poor and powerless. Additionally, social justice has tremendous meaning for both newcomers and longtime residents of the United States Stepick and Stepick Long histories of dictatorships and political oppression have spurred revolutions in these countries.

As a result, countless millions of Latinos have been uprooted and then have migrated to the United States, making the subject of social and economic justice very real for them, while creating a construct that can be used to help unite immigrant youth and their communities Delgado Understanding why this is the case offers an opportunity for politicization that has great potential for youth-led community organizing. Introducing fairness into discussions involving youth strikes a familiar chord and allows the concept of social justice to be translated in a manner and language that are understandable and attractive to young people Kurland The concept of fairness is one that often is found in family and school discussions, and thus is not foreign to youth.

Any serious examination of how the odds are stacked against the young in this society cannot help but uncover how the power and domination of adults over youth are at the heart of many of the struggles fought and challenges faced by young people McNamara Therefore, youth need to be able to understand how social and economic injustices relate to a host of social factors, including age.

When economic variables such as changes in the labor market are added to the analysis, it becomes apparent that youth must cross barriers that previous generations did not face. And often they are expected to surmount these obstacles with minimal assistance from adults Noack and Kracke While the experiences of immigrant parents are different from those of their sons and daughters, there nevertheless needs to be a shift in power that promotes partnership between the generations rather than continued adult domination over the young. Regardless of its particular form, such unfairness limits opportunities for the group being discriminated against to reach their potential.

The process of discrimination also takes a toll on those who discriminate, because of the time, energy, and resources that have to be expended to carry out such unjust, and often counterproductive, practices and policies. Adultism As noted earlier in this chapter, the importance of language in any social intervention cannot be underestimated. However, creating such terminology never is easy and is not a task that can be taken lightly. The term reverse ageism also has been used to identify discrimination against the young. Adultism and ageism have been referred to as the Coke and Pepsi of the youth-rights movement One and Four We favor adultism, although the reader should not be surprised if he or she has never before heard this word.

Adultism has been used only for the last decade or so, as the concept slowly has found its way into the professional literature on youth, particularly in writings embracing a rights perspective Tate and Copos Therefore, adultism captures the single greatest factor that threatens the ultimate success of adult—youth collaborations on social interventions such as community organizing. Although Bell is widely credited with popularizing the concept of adultism, Flasher made what is probably the earliest mention of this term in the professional literature.

Some readers may prefer the term ageism to describe this power differential based on age. However, ageism is a term usually reserved for discrimination focused on elders, even though it is not restricted to this group Macnicol Ageism still continues to be a major social issue in this and other countries. One study of ageism in Britain found that this form of oppression eclipsed racism, sexism, and discrimination based on disability Age Bias The answer is quite simple: because the presence of this oppressive force permeates all contacts that youth have with adults and people in authority.

This reality effectively serves to undermine any serious campaigns for social change, and it is ignored by youth-rights advocates only at great peril to their success. This form of social oppression serves as a catalyst, or rationale, for the important socialchange efforts being led by young people, with or without the aid of adults. The breadth of rule-making power that adult government grants itself is almost unlimited. It elevates traditional parental authority to law, giving youth a status much like property.

Adultism is the inherent belief that adults are the ultimate experts on young people—their issues, dreams, anxieties, and abilities. It places adults in the position of decision makers and arbiters of all policies, programs, and services regarding the young. What makes adults such experts on youth? Since adults have all been through the key developmental stages associated with this age group, their experiences, both positive and negative, have provided them with a perspective usually associated with being on the outside and looking in.

The failure of many, if not most, adults to be aware of and sensitive to such profound differences in contexts exacerbates adultist attitudes and actions. Thus, it is irresponsible to discuss youth and cultural competence without addressing the deleterious role of adultism in the lives of young people W. Grant Commission This is a quintessential catch situation.

Adults in youth-led initiatives must be able to step back and trust that youth can be responsible, yet not tune out because they are in a position to provide support Wheeler There is an underlying tension between usurping authority and stepping aside! Nevertheless, youth-led community organizing, like other dimensions of the youth-led movement, requires adults to assume roles that are secondary to young people; further, these roles in collaboration with young people are determined by young people themselves, and not the other way around.

It is necessary, however, to point out that the concept of adultism is not universally accepted in this society. Our position is that discrimination of any kind, regardless of its transitory or temporary state, never should be tolerated in a democratic society that embraces values and principles of social and economic justice. The pain, as well as the social and economic consequences resulting from these experiences, will shape the long-term worldview of those being discriminated against and also the outlooks and attitudes of the perpetrators of such oppression.

A humanitarian perspective on youth must not differ from that on sexual orientation, race, and gender, regardless of the fact that this condition is not a permanent state. Thus, the common reasons about why adultism is not a true form of oppression simply have no legitimacy. Adultism can manifest itself in overt and covert ways when adults discuss youth.

Reward Yourself

Blaming youth for the challenges that they must overcome, without regard to the circumstances barriers that adults have created for them, is irresponsible, yet it is a common example of adultism in action. Everybody wants to represent youth. Everybody wants to be young. These are hard times for young people.

This statement articulates the ambivalence adults feel about youth. We envy them, yet we do not trust them! But the argument based on experiential and theoretical expertise neglects to take into account the fact that adults were young during another time period, when circumstances and challenges were vastly different. Adultism can manifest itself in countless injustices and social dynamics; however, the term does not explain why this phenomenon exists.

The consequences of adultism for youth and the larger society are far-reaching. They also are more inclined to treat others with the same disrespect. Disillusioned young people enter adulthood without the desire and repertoire of competencies necessary to play active roles in their communities and in society in general.

Kim McGillicuddy , 1 , a young community organizer, summed up the importance of youth participation quite well: I think that for many people our commitment to youth organizing is because of both the personal and community transformation it brings. For example, the skills youth and adults get from organizing are endless. Essentially, competencies cannot be separated from values and commitment, since each addresses current needs while also serving as a foundation for future actions within a democratic society.

This focus on the present may appear minor; however, as will be discussed later, this stress on immediacy is critical to understanding how youth-led community organizing operates, and often dictates, the manner in which campaigns unfold and individual youth organizers function. We must go and deal with them as equals, and we must have both courage and integrity if we expect respect and cooperation on the part of youth. Nevertheless, when applied to youth, a legal perspective usually has served to disenfranchise this age group, not grant them the same rights and privileges given to adults.

Youth rights usually refers to a philosophical stance that focuses on the civil rights of the young Golombek In fact, youth rights organizers seek equal rights with adults by having young people play central roles in crafting their own strategies and campaigns to change their status.

Considering youth as resources, social capital, citizens, and partners with adults represents a radical departure from the existing norm. In effect, this latter position requires a shift in paradigms. Any paradigmatic change away from the prevailing view is bound to cause a severe reaction from those in positions of authority adults , who have a vested interest in maintaining the status quo.

A youth rights movement, otherwise called youth liberation, places the status of youth within a social context and proponents can expect to encounter numerous speed bumps on the road to equality for all, regardless of age Watts and Serrano Garcia A rights perspective on social and economic justice serves to broaden this concept to include a wide variety of undervalued groups Youth Liberation Program a.

However, youth rights has not been widely accepted, as argued by Holt , , Farson , and Parson over thirty years ago. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child often is credited with popularizing youth rights across the world. More recently, the United Nations Ad Hoc Working Group for Youth and the Millennium Development Goals United Nations has cast further global attention on the importance of tapping the human capital represented by 1. Youth rights as a guiding tenet for social justice has been underappreciated and ignored in a fashion similar to the failure to acknowledge the important role of young people in helping shape U.

Embracing a youth-rights perspective helps politicize the existence of young people and the issues that they confront. We declare that our generation is rightfully entitled to a useful, creative, and happy life, the guarantees of which are: full educational opportunities, steady employment at adequate wages, security in time of need, civil rights, religious freedom, and peace.

We have a right to life. We have a right to liberty. We have a right to happiness. This declaration of youth rights is quite powerful in conveying the belief and principles of an agenda of social and economic justice that is just as relevant today as it was in the s. Even so, the growing effort is showing enough potential strength and effectiveness that it may soon be worthy of the term. Roche introduced the language of citizenship as a means of raising the status of youth by examining how a sector of society effectively is disenfranchised of its rights.

Youth citizenship generally refers to young people having access to and exercising the rights and obligations for civil rights, political rights, and social rights. This multifaceted perspective broadens youth participation within all aspects of society and provides a framework for assessing their status. As a result, the denial of youth citizenship is an excellent handle for young people organizing campaigns, particularly ones that they lead.

The youth-led movement, it must be acknowledged, has raised the political consciousness of youth who occupy marginalized positions in society. Increasing numbers of young people understand that their situation and identity are very much based on inequalities in social and economic justice. As a result, many youth are drawing on their politicized identities to organize collective action to achieve social and economic justice for themselves and their communities Ginwright Youth organizers and their adult allies believe that regardless of race, gender and socioeconomic status, people should be treated with respect and have equal access to a decent quality of life.

For low-income, of color, and other disadvantaged populations, inequality and discrimination are persistent barriers to achieving this vision. As such, social justice [must be] the bedrock of all forms of community development. Community Youth Development is no exception.

Concepts such as social justice, adultism, and youth rights set the stage for this form of social intervention. Thus, this points to the need for a youth-led community organizing model that places youth in charge of a social-change agenda based on their worldview and voices. Youth, it is important to emphasize once again, will determine if, when, and how adults are a part of youth-led organizing!

A philosophical commitment to diversity must play a central role in any youth-led social and economic justice agenda Velazquez and Garin-Jones The reader will see these and other social and economic justice values prominently represented in the guiding principles for youth-led community organizing and the analytical framework presented in chapter 4.

The acceptance and celebration of diversity must be backed by a similar commitment to action, often forming the foundation for initiatives embracing social and economic justice. For example, gender diversity necessitates that youth organizing efforts must reach out to women, creating an organizational climate that confronts patriarchy, provides opportunities for leadership and high visibility, and addresses social and economic issues of great relevance to women Weiss Anything short of these goals will ultimately compromise any legitimacy that young people gain in their social-change efforts.

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Youth who are gay can organize on the same general issues as straight youth, such as with regard to education, but they will do so with a special focus on their population group. Commitments to other underrepresented groups require similar sets of values and actions. There must be a strategic determination about when they can unite and when they must go their separate ways Sears Conclusion The philosophical foundation upon which youth-led community organizing rests will help young people frame their perspective on social and economic injustices, provide them with a language to use, and be the base for their plans and social action campaigns.

Such challenges are not restricted to youth; they are a common problem when anyone attempts to delineate the philosophical and theoretical roots of any social intervention. Nevertheless, it is essential to explore the basic premises and operating principles that animate youth-led community organizing. A social and economic justice lens provides optimum perspective for bringing together disparate groups in search of a common understanding of their situation, helping them to create an agenda for action that is inclusive.

Further, it highlights the complexities in achieving social justice in a society that has a long history of discrimination and that has essentially selected adults to decide which social issues are legitimate. However, there is little question that we adults must be willing and able to confront and change the roles we play in disempowering youth. Unfortunately, this journey of self-discovery is painful and unsettling. Nevertheless, as addressed in this chapter, there is no denying that youth are oppressed in this society, and that even the most understanding professionals harbor attitudes and have behaviors that stem from adultism, even as we embrace the youth-led movement.

Achievement of social and economic justice for youth will necessitate the involvement of adults as collaborators and facilitators, as dictated by youth. Our failure to act in such an empowering and facilitative manner will bear bitter fruit in our society. In effect, adults will become or continue to be part of the problem facing youth, even if our intentions are honorable! The emergence of an intervention such as youth-led community organizing is rarely an overnight occurrence.

A context of social and economic justice, we believe, helps us better understand and appreciate the emergence of youth-led community organizing, as noted in the previous chapter. Having laid this groundwork, we now chronicle the growth of youth-led organizing since the mids. Without knowing this history, our understanding of the current status of youth-led community organizing is severely limited. Historical Overview of Community Organization It is important to note that the roots of community organizing for achieving social and economic justice reach deep into the social work profession, and the effort dates back to the settlement movement, although organizing certainly cannot be considered the exclusive domain of this profession Weil ; Garvin and Cox ; Betten and Austin ; Fisher ; Ross ; Lane ; Steiner However, the debate about social reform versus individual treatment is well over years old and parallels the history of the social work profession, persisting to this day in various arenas Haynes ; Specht and Courtney The s witnessed the emergence of community organizing as a distinct practice, with a set of theoretical concepts, principles, scholarship, and graduate-level courses of study in schools of social work across the United States Lurie , Probably more than any other profession, social work has adopted this practice alongside planning, program development, and human services management within the macro-practice arena Weil ; Rothman , and community organizing continues to be studied and learned in social work and other human service programs.

Nevertheless, community organizing is by no means restricted to practitioners who are formally educated or belong to any particular age group. Unlike planning, program development, and management, this practice has a long history of being democratic and within the reach of anyone and any organization wishing to bring about social change.

Indeed, most social work practice is not actively engaged in community organizing, and the majority of organizing efforts are not carried out by social work professionals. Over the course of the twentieth century, the degree and impact of various forms of organizing was episodic, with periods of popular insurgency and social activism followed by periods of relative quiescence. Then in the mids, the civil rights movement launched an unparalleled period of activism and organizing that extended all the way through the s Piven and Cloward During this time, a broad array of constituency groups organized to assert their rights, including welfare recipients, farm workers, the elderly, women, gays and lesbians, people with disabilities, prisoners, tenants, environmental activists, blacks, Chicanos, and Native Americans Garvin and Cox ; Fisher Turf-based community organizing also began to gather momentum, as Alinsky started new projects in a number northern and Midwestern cities Finks A political backlash from large segments of the working and middle classes also led organizers to rethink their approaches and strategies that had focused exclusively on low-income people.

A number of ambitious new community organizing initiatives of unprecedented scale appeared.


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  8. Over the next three and a half decades, ACORN moved rapidly to build organizations at the statewide, regional, and national levels. This context hardly was fertile ground for community organizing. Indeed, many of the large statewide organizations founded in the s were out of business by the mids. Hundreds of smaller, independent grassroots organizations not aligned with any of the major networks also sprouted up across the country, and many community development corporations now include an organizing component Traynor For instance, ACORN now operates two radio stations, produces several publications including Social Policy , runs a housing corporation, administers a voter registration network, and helped spin off the Working Families Party in New York State, which is expanding into several other states as this book went to press.

    Indeed, many community organizations have entered the arena of electoral politics within the constraints of their corporate status. There also have been many attempts to build cooperation between community organizations and organized labor, as evidenced by the work of ACORN with the Service Employees International Union SEIU , a number of successful community-labor coalitions, and Living Wage campaigns across the country Simmons An illustrative, but not exhaustive, list of issue-based organizing projects includes affordable housing, environmental justice, lending policies, recreation, crime, utility rates, corporate responsibility, global capital, health care, public assistance, neighborhood improvement, tax reform, clean government, education, and employment Staples a, 5 : Still other organizations are formed by constituency subgroups as communities of identity along dimensions such as race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, immigrant status, religion, and physical or mental disability.

    Much of this can be attributed to the failure of many turf and issue organizations to adequately address the interests and concerns of constituency subgroups within their membership. Since constituency group members often experience discrimination most directly and painfully along these very dimensions, they have frequently felt the need to organize separately to effectively challenge the oppression that so profoundly impacts their lives. The youth-led organizing that this book examines most clearly falls under the category of identity organizing. Nevertheless, with the exception of the student movement of the sixties which was dominated by white, middle-class college students or recent graduates , young people seldom were in positions of leadership and responsibility in these organizing efforts.

    At best, these community organizations included youth, but almost never was the agenda youth-driven nor were the groups youth-led. Historical Overview of the Youth-Led Field As addressed in chapter 1, the term youth-led often is interchangeable with numerous other phrases, such as youth civic engagement, youth decision making, youth empowerment, youth leadership, and most notably, youth development.

    A historical review of youth development is beyond the goals of this chapter; however, the reader is advised to read the book Community Programs to Promote Youth Development by Eccles and Gootman for an appreciation of the history and expansiveness of this paradigm. This evolutionary process has taken many years, if not decades, with no one timetable that applies to all processes. We believe that youth-led community organizing follows this evolutionary pattern, and only now are we starting to appreciate its origins and manifestations.

    If we hope to comprehend the present form of the youth-led movement and seek to help shape its future, it is essential that we understand its origins and evolution. Two Decades b, 11 This assessment of the paucity of historical knowledge and understanding about the youth-led movement, and particularly about youth activism is very much on target, from our perspective.

    Social Youth Entrepreneurship - Melvin Delgado

    It underscores the need for developing a fuller and more in-depth appreciation of the history of youth organizing. The youthdevelopment paradigm also has evolved over the past decade or so Delgado ; Rauner No longer were youth viewed and portrayed as victims, perpetrators, empty vessels, or a potential market for commercial goods. This perspective further accentuated the assets that all youth have and the importance for adults to facilitate youth capacity enhancement, rather than focusing on development exclusively.

    Young people are viewed as key agents— as the activists—in their communities around issues that impact them directly. The currency of community youth development has facilitated the rapid growth of youth organizing because this paradigm couches youth development within the broader context of community Booth and Crouter ; Eccles and Gootman ; Gambone et al. Further, personal development often is a key component of youthled community organizing. Development in one area individual cannot be maximized without development in the other area community.

    Thus, it is best to view community youth development from a broad perspective that encompasses enhancing the power of youth to achieve social change. In the process of attaining social change, youth are able to enhance and develop competencies that facilitate their transition to adulthood, with a tool kit that makes them valuable members of a civic, democratic society What Is the Impact a. Social youth enterprises Delgado , health promotion Delgado and Zhou in press , and research Delgado have been the latest arenas for increased scholarship, and a number of new books on these subjects have been published.

    For example, Carroll, Herbert, and Roy report on the role and value of youth-led violence prevention in the late s. By exploring the intersections of age with race, gender, class, disability and sexuality, many organizations have developed a sophisticated analysis for how issues interact to impact their communities. As a result, many youth groups not only work to create power for youth in their communities, they also have the broader goal of community empowerment.

    Citizen and youth action each feature youth initiating and organizing themselves for social change. These two ships meet on occasions but essentially are using different navigational systems and have different destinations. Such a perspective relies heavily on a social and economic justice perspective to help youth better contextualize their experiences.

    Achieving this goal requires interventions that do not exclusively focus on individual behavior. Further, a more comprehensive approach enables participating youth to develop an in-depth understanding of how these forces shape their personal destinies, their communities, and the roles they can play in larger arenas. Youniss and colleagues , 13 note: Youth did not create the post global uncertainty nor the sprawling global economic structures that can easily breed a sense of impotence. Nonetheless, youth will be the critical participants in the processes that achieve stability, even out the widening gap between rich and poor, preserve the environment, forcibly quell ethnic enmities, and render a balance between globalization and cultural traditions.

    The reader may well argue that an asset paradigm, even if focused on individual youth, still is promising. There certainly is an intrinsic value to this approach. However, when youth development programs target youth who confront a litany of social and economic injustices, without systematically addressing those forces, injustices are perpetrated under the guise of helping youth develop their potential! Under such circumstances, youth cannot develop a more sophisticated understanding of the conditions that shape their individual development. Any results achieved and solutions found will fall far short of ultimate success when these larger dimensions are ignored.

    Addressing power inequalities is a natural response when injustice is experienced Cohen ; Lawrence et al. Thus, the embrace of a change agenda for social and economic justice as a central goal or theme separates youth-led community organizing from the more conventional forms of youth development that emphasize personal growth and positive change within the community Sherman Change can focus on improving services, expanding access, and enhancing other dimensions that affect the quality of life for youth and their families within existing power structures Checkoway ; Knox et al.

    However, justice-based change goals also can seek to alter power relationships in a redistributive manner, even when this may not be the norm or be explicitly stated. Activism connected to themes of social and economic justice is without question one of the most vibrant areas of the youth-led movement, nationally and internationally Brown et al.

    Social activism is undertaken within an extensive set of public arenas. In this form, youth employ a variety of strategies, including advocacy, social action, popular education, mass mobilization, and community and program development, to achieve their goals for social change. The reader may well argue that these components also can be found in adult-led organizing; however, as will be discussed throughout this book, these components take on unique and quite prominent manifestations in youth-led community organizing because of historical and social forces.

    The youth-led movement has managed to combine a variety of youth-focused goals that incorporate academic, social, cultural pride, and service learning objectives Cervone HoSang , 2 highlights the importance of a holistic perspective in youth-led community organizing: First, many youth organizing groups have developed an integrated approach to social change, often combining issue-based organizing with leadership development programs, service learning activities, cultural enrichment programs, and even academic and personal support components.

    In comparison to adult-based community organizing groups that typically focus on policy outcomes and the organizing skills of its constituents, youth groups have crafted a more holistic approach to social change that addresses the many issues young members face. The use of a community-based service-learning perspective is one promising mechanism for helping youth organizers integrate individual goals with community-focused goals Camino ; Cervone and Cushman ; Eyler and Giles The ability of youth-led community organizers to achieve both social and individual change will be a key factor in the success of their efforts, in both the short and long term.

    HoSang goes on to note that this holistic perspective takes on greater meaning with youth organizers, because socialaction campaigns can take a great deal of time before success is achieved. Youth-led organizing victories, not surprisingly, are restricted to small-scale reforms focused on single issues. Lack of collaboration across groups, adult as well as youth-led, has precluded focus on broader social issues with national policy implications.

    Youth-led community organizing easily can incorporate the elements and goals of decision making, leadership development, skills building, relationship building, community service, and identity development, to list a few goals usually associated with youth development YouthAction Thus, youth-led community organizing and youth development conceptually can co-exist without severely compromising each other. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out.

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    Youth-Led Community Organizing: Theory and Action

    Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Returning user. Youth-led organizing, a burgeoning movement that empowers young people while simultaneously enabling them to make substantive contributions to their communities, is increasingly receiving attention from scholars, activists, and the media. This book studies this dynamic field. It takes an important step toward bridging the gap between academic knowledge and community practice in this growing area.

    These groups and their young participants represent the politics and activism of the future, and the book guides to their key aspects and recent developments. Keywords: social justice , youth-led community , organizations , communities , contributions. Forgot password? Don't have an account? All Rights Reserved. OSO version 0.